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Posted in Mental Health

Blacktivate Lesson 007: Only One You. Only One Life. Only One Moment. Show Me YOUR One!

Hey Hey Ya! It’s your guuurrrllll, Chris Omni, the Health Hippie, back once again to activate the health and wellbeing of Black women……Correction, I’m back to activate the health and wellbeing of everyone!

These last several days have taught me a lot about time, patience, mental health, balance, and the act of being gentle. I participated in three research-focused competitions in the last four weeks; I have a competition and a master’s defense on Monday; I have another competition in mid-April. That’s a lot! It was/is very exciting to share my research about the impact of physical activity and Black women’s health. But, this Black woman needs to take a closer look at her own health.

Yesterday, minutes before my competition, I experienced a nosebleed. Ironically, last week, the night before my competition, I experienced a nosebleed. When I was a little girl, I would experience nosebleeds with a minor degree of regularity and it wasn’t much of a big deal. However, to experience two nosebleeds, as a grown ass woman, in less than a week of each other is worth analyzing.

The conclusion that I reached is that my body was communicating a level of stress that my mind wasn’t aware of. It’s such a beautiful thing to listen to the communication of our bodies. Have you ever heard YOUR body whisper or even scream at you? Pay attention! There is a powerful lesson to be learned.

Lessons on Living (LOL)

A nosebleed isn’t something to laugh at, but the lesson learned certainly is. My personal take away was stop moving. Yep! Not just slow down for awhile. I mean totally stop moving and sit. This morning, I sat, for the first time, on my new zafu meditation pillow and watched the sunrise. I paused the world! I focused on one thing and one thing only; to be present with the sun. When I came out of meditation I immediately wanted to write. I wanted to reach out to all seven followers of Blacktivate to say goodbye.

I’m saying goodbye to Blacktivate because I am still able to share my research on Black women’s health through my work with Kujima (www.kujimahealth.com – http://www.instagram.com/kujimahealth), but I loooooooooooooooooove writing lessons on living. I did it for several years when I launched Window Seat Wednesday on Facebook and it is time to get back to my origins. With that said, I’m signing off from Blacktivate and signing onto Window Seat Wednesday. I hope to see you there.

High Fives, Hugs, and Hope,

Chris “The Health Hippie” Omni

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Posted in Anxiety, Built Environment, Environmental Wellness, exercise, fitness, Mental Health, Physical Activity, Uncategorized, wellness

Blacktivate Lesson 005: Green Exercises for Black Women (Part 1 of 2)

Hey Hey Ya! It’s your guuurrrllll, Chris Omni, the Health Hippie, back once again to activate the health and wellbeing of Black women. This week, I am going to talk about a close companion to physical health, Mental Health! This Part 1 post will be a very transparent look into my world and the labels that are now part of my life. If you are ready for Lesson 5, throw a fist in the air and say it with me, “It’s time to… BLACKTIVATE!”

Do you see that Chester Cheetah smile spread all across my face after winning the Kansas State University 3 Minute Thesis Competition? I’m sure you can’t miss it! I love this capture because it is an authentic representation of my genuine feelings of happiness and appreciation for being recognized for my research. But, there was a time in my life when that smile was inauthentic.

Have you ever gone to work knowing that you were dying on the inside? Have you ever come home and made a b-line to your bed so you could go to sleep and escape the concerns of the day? How about this: Have you ever worn a fake smile while lying to someone by saying you were okay? I answered yes to all three of those questions in 2008.

I was swimming in debt; I was popping Benadryl pills to escape my pain; I was telling lies to people-fake smiles and fake “I’m okay.” It was a horrible rollercoaster ride that I don’t remember buying a ticket for. It was time to get off this ride, but I didn’t know how. I was battling depression and wasn’t winning. Eventually, that ride came to an end and life seemed to be back to normal. Well, that was until the fall semester of 2018.

On September 27, 2018, I had an anxiety attack while meeting with my major professor of all people. I didn’t even know it was an attack until I went to the emergency room later that night. I just knew that this uncontrollable itching was totally abnormal. While lying on the emergency room table, with the ER doctor in one chair and my Epidemiology book in the other, I was told that my uncontrollable itching was symptomatic of an anxiety attack. After a few minutes of questions and answers, I was diagnosed with GAD-Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

GAD is yet another label. It was a label that I did not want to wear because it reminded me of the lack of control I had over the label from 10 years prior-Depression. The beautiful thing about this particular time was that age, wisdom, and an amazing network of sister friends were there to help me through it. Additionally, I fell back in love with walking and being in nature! Who knew that there were FREE restorative properties in the great outdoors?

Obviously, researchers knew about this and so did doctors. My ER doctor prescribed exercise and meditation as part of my healing process. (Sounds kinda funny now. I’m a group exercise specialist; I know this stuff!) The timing was great because it was fall and the leaves were changing and signaling to me that it is time to change, too. As to not bore you with too much more of the emotional backstory of depression and anxiety, I’m going to leave you with this research teaser quote that ties into next week’s discussion:

… there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that time spent in the presence of nature improves psychological health and well-being” [1]

Well Luvs, that is it for this week. Thank you for spending a little time with me and please tune in next Thursday as we continue the conversation about Green Exercises for Black Women. This research is super interesting and I can’t wait to share it with you because THIS is how we activate the health and wellbeing of Black women. You can’t do better until you know better!

High Fives, Hugs, and Hope!

Chris “The Health Hippie” Omni

References

  1. Lawton, E., Brymer, E., Clough, P., & Denovan, A. (2017) The Relationship between Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers. Front, Psychol. 8: 1058. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01058
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Posted in hypertension, Modifiable Risk Factors, Physical Activity

Blacktivate Lesson 004: How to Reduce the “Pressure.”





Your “High 5” Ways
to Reduce High Blood Pressure.

Hey Hey Ya! It’s your guuurrrllll, Chris Omni, the Health Hippie, back once again to activate the health and wellbeing of Black women. It’s time to Blacktivate, ya!

This week, I am going to continue our conversation about high blood pressure by providing a list of 5 ways to control and/or reduce your risks. Are you ready?

1: Your Body Was Made to Move!

The Surgeon General recommends achieving 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity every week [1]. That may seem like a lot, so let me break it down. If you engage in physical activity for 30 minutes per day, 5 days per week, you will achieve your 150 minutes. Don’t be concerned if you can’t block off 30 minutes, you can break that down into three, 10-minute bouts of physical activity. Sounds a little more doable, huh? Just think of breakfast minutes, lunch minutes, and dinner minutes! You got this. Always remember to listen to your body!!

2: Watch That Sodium, Sistah Friend!

I promise, I couldn’t make this up if I tried! Did you know that there was a website entitled picklelicious? Yessssssssss! Lovin’ it!! I really do like pickles. Zesty are my favorite 🙂 Okay, where was I? Ohhh, that’s right, I was thinking about whether or not I was going to dig into scientific journals or give you facts from picklelicious.com. Pickles Win!

Pickles have one major drawback-sodium [2]. Now hear me when I say this, “pickles are not the only snacks that are high in sodium.” Take a trip to your cabinet and look at the food labels. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that our sodium intake not aexceed 2,300 milligrams per day. If you already have high blood pressure,make that no more than 1500 milligrams per day.

3: Drink in Moderation Not For Elevation!

Let me be the FIRST to say, “I loooooooove wine.” Give me a glass of Cabernet, Merlot, Malbec, Zinfandel, Sangiovese, or anything dry and red and I’m in my happy place. However, I also know that excessive alcohol consumption will increase my risk of high blood pressure. The message here is to not get faded! No matter what your drink of choice is, learn to savor the experience and the taste not just the tilt.

You know I’m not about to move onto the next subject without discussing why.

Excess alcohol consumption is bad because of the sugar. Sadly, there is not a nutrition label on most bottles of wine and that leaves you unaware of how much you are truly consuming. There is a great article in the Washington Post that will break down some of the nutrition facts for you. [3] One last thing, keep in mind, wine isn’t the only food or beverage that has sugar. Be aware; check your labels.

4: Smoke Ribs Not Cigarettes… (make that corn on the cob for vegetarians!)

As a non-smoker, it seems simple enough to say, “Just STOP!” But, as a former employee wellness coordinator and wellness coach, I have worked with people who have struggled with this very subject. Please know that this blog isn’t about telling you what you should or should not do; I just want to help activate your health and wellbeing by boosting your knowledge about physical activity, chronic diseases, and various risk factors. One last nugget of information: Every time you smoke you are causing a temporary increase in your blood pressure [4]. Okay, I’ll move on…

5: Worry Less Live More

Nothing immediately activates “The Pressure” as much as stress. Writing about stress is even stressful, but providing stress management techniques is helpful. Enjoy this visual from Harvard University [5]. It truly speaks to what I would have personally recommended. “Unplug” and “Slow Down” are my go-to speeds!

Well Luvs, that is it for this week. Thank you for spending a little time with me and please tune in next Thursday (bring a friend) as I continue my mission of improving Black women’s health-related quality of life by activating their health and wellbeing.

High Fives, Hugs, and Hope!

Chris “The Health Hippie” Omni

References

  1. HHS Releases Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition (2018) US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2018/11/12/hhs-releases-physical-activity-guidelines-americans-2nd-edition.html
  2. https://picklelicious.com/4-facts-about-pickles-and-weight-loss/
  3. Lehmann, C. (2014). Watching Your Sugar Intake? Toast to Dry Wine. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/wellness/watching-your-sugar-intake-toast-to-dry-wine/2014/04/22/b0ebf500-ba73-11e3-a397-6debf9e66e65_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.8d1e25ba2e47
  4. Smoking, High Blood Pressure and Your Health (2016). American Heart Association. Retrieved from https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/changes-you-can-make-to-manage-high-blood-pressure/smoking-high-blood-pressure-and-your-health
  5. Seven Ways to Reduce Stress and Keep Blood Pressure Down. Harvard University Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/7-ways-to-keep-stress-and-blood-pressure-down
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Blacktivate Lesson 003: The Pressure. (A two-part series)

Did you know that hypertension is just another way of saying high blood pressure? Seems like basic knowledge to some, but to those who don’t know, this blog might shed a little light on the situation. High blood pressure is when the pressure of your blood against the arterial wall is high enough to cause damage to the artery itself or the organs. Wowwwzer, that is way to technical for where I want to go with this week’s blog. Let me break it down-Pickle Style!

Imagine trying to open your favorite jar of pickles. I don’t know about ya, but I love the Zesty kind. Yummmmmm! I digress; imagine trying to remove the lid from the jar but you just don’t have enough strength. But, you remember a few old school remedies: 1) tapping the bottom of the jar, 2) running the jar under some warm water, or 3) swirling it around in the air. After selecting your remedy of choice, the lid magically loosens and you get to enjoy your pickles. So what really happened in those few seconds of magic? Physics.

If you opted for old school remedy one, hitting the bottom of the jar, what occurred was the loosening of the contents and the piling of the contents on the lid. Just like that you heard a pop and all the internal pressure was released allowing you access to your pickles. This piling analogy is similar to the pressure of your blood against your arterial wall.

Time for a brief education pause:

Arteries are the blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the tissues of the body. They are pretty important!

Fortunately, you will not hear an actual pop if your blood pressure gets too high. The most obvious reason why you won’t is because you are not a jar of pickles. (If I was a jar of pickles, I’d certainly be Zesty!) All joking aside, the more concerning reason why you won’t hear a pop is because high blood pressure is a “symptomless silent killer” [1].

To root all of this information in the foundation of Blacktivate, it is important to know that high blood pressure can contribute to stroke and diabetes. Sadly, these are three of the major chronic diseases that disproportionately impact the Black community. Black people are 60% more likely to be diabetic, 40% more likely to die from heart disease, and 30% more likely to die from a stroke.

Having high blood pressure is not a death sentence, but if it goes uncontrolled can ultimately become the death of you. You don’t want that. Your friends and family don’t want that. And, I certainly don’t want that either. If you see yourself in the gold, orange, or red zones [2], it is truly time to activate your health and wellbeing. Stay tuned for Part Two when I provide helpful tips to help lower your blood pressure and start that activation process.

Until next time, be well!

Chris “The Health Hippie” Omni

References:

  1. What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? American Heart Association. Retrieved from https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/why-high-blood-pressure-is-a-silent-killer/what-are-the-symptoms-of-high-blood-pressure
  2. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings. American Heart Association. Retrieved from https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/understanding-blood-pressure-readings  \
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Posted in BMI, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity

Blacktivate Lesson 002: The BS that is BMI!

Let me go ahead and lead with this…the BMI, Body Mass Index, is a culturally-biased, inaccurate bulls*#!% scale! Ahhhhhhhhh, yes, that feels so good to get off my chest. It was developed in the 1830’s and we all know that body shapes have changed significantly since then. If we have changed, why hasn’t the scale? Okay, okay, okay, I’ll temporarily get off my soap box in order to give you the real and the research to support my assertion.

A 2010 study [1], Accuracy of Current Body Mass Index Obesity Classification for White, Black and Hispanic Reproductive-age Women,” conducted by Drs. Rahman and Berenson, concluded that “the National Institutes of Health should use race/ethnic specific BMI cutoff values to more accurately identify obesity in this population than the existing classification system.” Yes, you saw those two critical words: MORE ACCURATELY!

You already know that I completely cosign with the findings of Dr. Rahman and Dr. Berenson. However, as my professor pointed out during one of my rants about the cultural insensitivity of the BMI, if we didn’t use the BMI, what would we use? It is easy and efficient, I admit that. A person can quickly calculate their height and weight (click here to check your BMI) and immediately know their body mass index. But, just because it’s easy, does that mean that we must keep using it?

Unfortunately, I do not have the answer to her question….yet! I’m working on something revolutionary called the B2MI scale. You’ll hear more about my scale in about five years. Until the time of my big reveal, all I can do is educate you, my readers, about the falsehoods and feelings of inadequacy associated with this BS scale.

I know you can’t tell much by a picture, but humor me and take a quick look at the above picture on the right. That’s me. I was in the best shape of my life when this picture was taken. I was teaching several classes per week and my body was loving the results. But, according to the scale, as a 5’6″ Black woman coming in at 150 pounds, my BMI was 24.21. This means that I was less than one point away from being classified as overweight! Yes, LESS THAN ONE FLIPPIN’ POINT!

This is my field and I know that the BMI scale is flawed, but not everyone knows that. Furthermore, if you only looked at my numbers on a piece paper you might dismiss me before even giving me a chance. A chance to join the military. A chance to join the fire department. A chance to compete in a pageant. A chance for anything that considers a persons’ ability based upon their weight! Plain and simple, especially as it relates to my Black sisters, it just does not make sense to have a universal cutoff value to categorize people as “normal,” “overweight,” “obese,” or even “morbidly obese” [2,3].

So, as you prepare to wrap up this week’s Blacktivate lesson, I encourage you to view the BMI as a non-factor. It does NOT tell your story! It does NOT reflect your efforts! It didn’t have YOU in mind when it was created and it sho nuff doesn’t have YOU in mind now! YOU, my Luvs, are uniquely and wonderfully made! Never forget it and never let any scale, BMI or the kind that you stand on, strip you of this truth. Engage in your daily physical activity for the pureness of movement and all the other health benefits will eventually come. Simply put, let your joy be in your JOurneY.

Until next week, continue to activate your health and wellbeing. Continue to Blacktivate!

Chris “The Health Hippie” Omni

References:

  1. Rahman, Mahbubur and Abbey B Berenson.(2010) “Accuracy of current body mass index obesity classification for white, black, and Hispanic reproductive-age women”  Obstetrics and gynecology. 115(5): 982-8.
  2. Razak F, Anand SS, Shannon H, Vuksan V, Davis B, Jacobs R, Teo KK, McQueen M, Yusuf S. (2007) “Defining obesity cut points in a multiethnic population.” Circulation. 115(16):2111-8.
  3. Evans EM, Rowe DA, Racette SB, Ross KM, McAuley E (2006) “Is the current BMI obesity classification appropriate for black and white postmenopausal women?” Int J Obes (Lond). 30(5):837-43.

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Blacktivate Lesson 001: Physical Activity and Aging

How many times have we, as Black women, heard the saying, “Black don’t crack?” I am 44-years old and people still think that my 23-year old daughter is my sister. “Thank you, I’ll take that!!!” Second question, how many of us have heard that exercise is the fountain of youth? I’m sure quite a few of us have heard that, but it still doesn’t seem to be enough to get us to engage in physical activity.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), overall, 27.5% of adults age 50 and greater reported no physical activity outside of work. Since I’m six years shy of this big nickel circle, I’m really interested in physical activity and aging. (Truth be told, I even started taking a Centrum Silver.) But, seriously, this statistic only increases with age, gender, and race. With this knowledge, it is time to bring this topic to the forefront and start educating my sisters. If you are ready for the journey, keep reading.

In that same research article, provided by the CDC, they reported that inactivity prevalence was significantly higher among women than men and among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks compared to that of non-Hispanic Whites. Furthermore, Black women rank lowest among race and sex demographic groups to achieve recommended levels of physical activity (Joseph et al., 2015). Stay with me now…I’m curious. Could it be that we, as Black women, are relying on the fact that due to our melanin that movement really doesn’t matter?

Black women, just in case you haven’t heard it from anyone else, I’m here to tell you that, “MOVEMENT MATTERS!” I, your sister in health, have nearly 20 years of experience in health promotion and I have seen it work wonders in the lives of my clients and students. Most importantly, my Mama’s oncologist told me before she died, that her faith and her fitness enabled her to fight for 26 years! Yes indeedy, movement matters my melanin mamas!

Now, here is where I’m going to step on a few toes. As a former personal trainer and group exercise instructor, I can confidently say, “Move for the purity of movement!” I know that physical activity will lower your risk of certain chronic diseases. I know that physical activity will help to lower your weight. But, when you engage in physical activity for the sole purpose of achieving an “end” rather than enjoying the “journey” to that end, you miss the point.

Black women, we are a beautiful people with a beautiful story. And, we are fortunate to have won the genetic lottery where we don’t actually look our age. Since we are already winners, let’s win with wellness. Are YOU with me? If so, let’s activate our health and wellbeing. It’s time to…

Blacktivate!

Chris “The Health Hippie” Omni

Reference:

Joseph, RP, Ainsworth, BE, Keller, C., Dodgson, JE. Barriers to physical activity among African American women: An integrative review of the literature. Women Health. 2015; 1-21.

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Welcome to Blacktivate

“No matter what you do, Chris, I’ll be proud of you!

Even if you were a street sweeper, I’d be proud of you!”

-Clara “Mama” Simmons

Imagine growing up with those words constantly dancing in your spirit. Words that assured any doubt. Words that provided comfort to any confused personal or professional trajectory. Words that shaped a foundation. “I am proud of you”  were the words that Mama planted in my soul several decades ago and I can still feel her energy 44 years later.

It’s funny how words can stick with you; the same is true for memories.

I remember three wishes she shared with me several years prior to her death in 2016: 1) she wanted to live long enough to see me graduate from high school, 2) she wanted to live long enough to see me graduate from college, and 3) she wanted to live long enough to see my daughter graduate from high school. Sadly, Mama was not physically present to see my daughter graduate from Kansas State University nor will she see me graduate with a Master of Public Health degree from the same university. But, Mama will always have the best seat in the house to see us grow into our own. After all, Mama wanted to be part of every major milestone in our lives because “she was proud” of us! And, I know Mama would be proud of this new endeavor, Blacktivate.

As funny as the thought is, please realize that I’m not just creating this blog so Mama can read it to her angel friends and brag about her baby. Although, I can totally see her doing that! Truthfully, I am creating this blog to provide understandable, accessible, and relevant evidence-based education to anyone who wants to make Black women’s health a capital concern. According to http://www.blackdemographics.com, there are 23.5 million Black women in the US. That figure represents less than 20% of the entire female population. But, sadly, Black women are disproportionately represented by health disparities in this country.

American Cancer Society reports that African Americans have the highest death rate and shortest survival of any racial and ethnic group in the US for most cancers. HIGHEST certainly isn’t 20%. American Heart Association reports that 49% of African American women age 20 and older have heart disease. Once again, 49% certainly isn’t 20%. I won’t bore you with too many statistics, yet. It’s only week one after all. But, starting next week, we are going to school and class will be in session!!!

Before signing off, I want to welcome you into the world of Blacktivatea lifestyle blog written by a Black woman for Black women and anyone who cares about the health of Black women.

Black + Activate = Blacktivate

Activating the health and wellbeing of Black women.

Lesson 1 starts on Thursday, February 14, 2019.

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Blacktivate Lesson 006: Green Exercises for Black Women Pt. 2

Summer 2018

Hey Hey Ya! It’s your guuurrrllll, Chris Omni, the Health Hippie, back once again to activate the health and wellbeing of Black women. This week, we are going to continue our conversation about the transformative power of being outdoors. I promise to shy away from the mushy stuff this week because you had plenty of it during lesson 005. So, if you are ready for Lesson 006, throw a fist in the air and say it with me…

“It’s time to… BLACKTIVATE!”

It’s kind of difficult to tell by the opening picture, but this picture was taken just before we started walking on the Shunga Trail in Topeka, Kansas. This walking event was no different than any other walk, but the remarkable aspect of this picture, that most people wouldn’t know, is that each of the eight women were going through eight totally separate life situations.

Some pains, worries, and other life situations are worn on the face while others are hidden in plain sight. But, by the time we completed the 30 minute walk, one thing was pretty obvious-the collective mood was elevated. (Even if just for the 30 minutes during the walk and a few minutes after, I count that as a success!!) Some of you might be asking, what happened? Others of you might be curious about what was so magical about those 1,800 seconds? The answer is simple. They were nurtured by nature.

Research Time

A study conducted by Hartig et al. [1] looked at the relationship between positive emotional and cognitive outcomes and walking in urban settings versus walking in nature. Which one do YOU think was more beneficial? {insert Jeopardy timer}. Based on the title of this article, I hope you answered “nature.” Walking is great; don’t get me wrong. I just wrote an 11,000 word thesis about a walking intervention targeting Black women. I looooooove walking. But, for added mental health benefits, green exercises for Black women is the key! (I’m biased!!)

The topic of mental health is near and dear to me because I have been diagnosed with anxiety and have suffered with depression. These labels are rarely talked about in the Black community for reasons that we don’t have time to address in this article, but I promise to dive deeper into this subject during Minority Mental Health Awareness Month. But, as a quick teaser, did you know that African Americans are 20% more likely to report having serious psychological distress than Non-Hispanic Whites [2]? Psychological distress can mean major depression, anxiety, ADHD, and suicidal thoughts to name a few. I digress. Moving on…

While researching articles for this week’s post, I came across a cool concept called Nature Relatedness proposed by Researchers Martin and Brymer. Have you heard of it? It is exactly as it sounds-a connection to nature. Martin and Brymer researched anxiety levels in relation to nature, but they didn’t explore physical activity. Therefore, Lawton, Brymer, Clough, and Denovan expanded upon this work and investigated the role of physical activity in relation to nature and psychological wellbeing. What I found super interesting and telling about this research was the finding about relationships.

Just like interactions with human being, the type of relationship you have with that person dictates the experience(s) you share. Nature is no different. If a person is comfortable with nature and feels connected with nature then the psychological benefits are present [3]. But, the opposite is also true and positive effects become negated if being outdoors causes you to stress out. (All the bugs, heat, and other critters can be a distraction; I get it).

Please remember that I led this week’s article by publicly declaring my bias in favor of physical activity outdoors as a means to improve one’s mental health. But, green exercises for Black women is not the be all end all when it comes to improving mental health; it simply serves as another option to consider. Everyone is different. The most important aspect of any wellness journey is to keep trying on physical activity until you find what fits. (No pun intentend.)

Well Luvs, that is it for this week. Thank you for spending a little time with me and please tune in next Thursday as I continue my mission to activate the health and wellbeing of Black women.

High Fives, Hugs, and Hope!

Chris “The Health Hippie” Omni

PS

Knowledge is key; you can’t do better until you know better!

References

  1. Hartig, T., Evans, G. W., Jamner, I. D., Davis, D. S., and Garling, T. (2003), Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. J. Environ. Psychol. 23, 109-123. Doi: 10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00109-3
  2. Mental Health Data/Statistics (2016). US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health. Retrieved from https://www.minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/content.aspx?ID=6471
  3. Lawton, E., Brymer, e., Clough, P., and Denovan, A. (2017). The Relationship between Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers. Front. Psychol. 8:1058. Doi: 10.3389/psyg.2017.01058.